There is an immunoassay method that uses antibodies to a part of the glycated HbA1c- when measuring this way, the test looks at antibody attacks, and it looks at total HbA1c levels, and does a calculation that way. Boronic acid reacts differently to glycosolated HbA1c and so that can be used too. Spectrometers can actually really and truly look and measure the glycosolation.
I am relying on one source more than I usually do for today's fact. That source is Unexpected Hemoglobin A1c Results, by Alina-Gabriela Sofronescu, Laurie M Williams, Dorinda M Andrews, and Yusheng Zhu.
If you are a diabetic who would like to be interviewed and profiled, let me know.